Policy Framework for Management of .UG country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD)

whois.co.ug whois uganda

April 2011 ICTAU – The major objective of this policy is to formalize management of .UG Country Code Top Level Domain Name and come up with a management framework that will ensure
transparency and greater accountability towards the Internet community of Uganda and
the rest of the Global Internet Community.To develop and present a set of guidelines and recommendations for ccTLD management.

Table of Contents
SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
ACRONYMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………4
DEFINITIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.0 BACKGROUND…………………………………………………………………………………….6
1.2 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THIS DOCUMENT………………………………………….7
1.2.1 PURPOSE………………………………………………………………………………………7
1.2.2 OBJECTIVES ………………………………………………………………………………….7
1.3 EXPECTED OUTPUTS……………………………………………………………………………….7
1.4 EXPECTED OUTCOMES …………………………………………………………………………….7
1.5 RATIONALE/JUSTIFICATION FOR REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT OF .UG ccTLD ……….8
1.6 ASSESSING THE CURRENT MANAGEMENT………………………………………………9
2.0 EXPERIENCE FROM OTHER COUNTRIES AND LESSONS FOR UGANDA …………….9
2.1 INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO ………………………………………………………………..9
2.4 TANZANIA ……………………………………………………………………………………..10
2.5 KENYA…………………………………………………………………………………………..10
2.6 MAURITIUS ……………………………………………………………………………………11
3.1 LESSONS FOR UGANDA ………………………………………………………………………….11
3.2 ISSUES TO CONSIDER IN ADOPTING A MANAGEMENT STYLE …………………..11
4.0 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE FOR UGANDA ……………………13
5.0 POLICY STATEMENT, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES ………………………………..13
5.1 POLICY STATEMENT …………………………………………………………………….13
5.2 POLICY OBJECTIVE……………………………………………………………………..14
5.3 STRATEGIES ……………………………………………………………………………….14
6.0 DIRECT GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS……………………………………………..15
6.1 ROAD MAP TO ESTABLISHMENT OF UGNIC ……………………………………….15
7.0 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ……………………………………………………………………15
7.1 MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY ………..15
7.2 UGANDA COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION…………………………………………..16
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7.5 TRUSTEES OF .UgNIC ………………………………………………………………………16
7.6 COMPOSITION OF ugNIC BOARD………………………………………………………..17
7.7 ROLES OF THE ugNIC BOARD …………………………………………………………17
7. 8 ugNIC Technical Advisory Committee and the ugNIC Policy Advisory Committee
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
7.9 SUSTAINIBILITY PLAN…………………………………………………………………..18
8.0 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………………….18
9.0 ANNEXES……………………………………………………………………………………….18
ANNEX 1: Technical Expert Report……………………………………………………………18
ANNEX II: …………………………………………………
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SUMMARY
ACRONYMS
ccTLD Country Code Top Level Domain
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
DNS Domain Name System
.Ug Dot UG (Uganda’s country code Top Level Domain)
gTLD Generic Top Level Domain
IANA Internet Assigned Number Authority
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICT Information Communication Technology
IP Internet Protocol
ISC Internet Software Consortium, Inc. (ISC)
ISOC Internet Society
ISP Internet Service Provider
IT Information Technology
IXP Internet Exchange Point
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DEFINITIONS
Domain Technical identifiers containing alphanumeric
characters, used instead of Internet addresses
indispensable for the communication through the
Internet, due primarily to their easy-to-remember
nature
Whois Servers The process of retrieving information from the
database registry
ISO – 3166 Two letter codes for representation of country names
Domain hosting of .Ug ccTLD Servers that hold the registry database of .Ug
Registry An entity which registers, maintains and manages
records domain names
Registrar An entity responsible for adding, deleting or
modifying information in the registry Database
Internet Community A society comprising of internet users, network
operators, internet services, providers, civil society,
researchers, academic institutio
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1.0 BACKGROUND
It is recognized that although the Internet started in Uganda at around the same time
as the mobile telephony market, growth in the former has been comparatively slower.
Key constraints to the growth of the Internet market have been identified to include
inadequate infrastructure, unavailability of relevant or appropriate content and high
internet costs in Uganda. Associated with the presence of local content and local entity
on the internet are domain names and the management of the .Ug.
Whereas there are two types of domain names under the domain name system, that is,
country top level domains (ccTLD) and generic top level domains (gTLD), registration
for a ccTLD is often restricted to individuals or organisations located in the particular
country (or region) and as such promotes the visibility of the country on the Internet.
The system of registration of Internet domain names can facilitate the proliferation of
Internet in a country. The number of registrations of Internet domain names in a
country is also a measure of its popularity in the Internet space. Many countries have
therefore adopted liberal and market friendly policies to register large number of
Internet domain names under their country code, broadly consistent with global policy
and procedures of domain registration. Recently, some countries have brought
significant changes to their registration policies and procedures, which has led to a
substantial increase in the number of domains registered in a short period of time
.Ug
The administration of gTLD rests with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN), an internationally organized non profit corporation, with membership
from different countries and experts in the field. The responsibility for administration of
ccTLD, on the other hand, has been entrusted to the individual countries who in general
follow the guidelines provided by ICANN. These Internet domain names are used by the
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user entities to identify them in the networked Internet space. In the gTLD category,
.com and .net domains are the most popular, and have registered in largest numbers.
1.2 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THIS DOCUMENT
1.2.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of this policy is:
(i) To formalize the administration of the country code Top Level Domain of Uganda
(.Ug ccTLD)
(ii) To develop and present a set of guidelines and recommendations for ccTLD
management.
1.2.2 OBJECTIVES
The major objective of this policy is to formalize management of .Ug Country Code Top
Level Domain Name and come up with a management framework that will ensure
transparency and greater accountability towards the Internet community of Uganda and
the rest of the Global Internet Community
1.3 EXPECTED OUTPUTS
The key outputs of the policy are:
i. A ccTLD administration framework
ii. Awareness on re-delegation and transition to a new .Ug administration
iii. A representation of Uganda Internet Community at local and international fora
1.4 EXPECTED OUTCOMES
i. Promotion of utilization of .Ug name space
ii. A Secure ccTLD
iii. Improved communication between Uganda and the rest of the world;
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iv. Improved service delivery and;
v. Development of e-services industry
1.5 RATIONALE/JUSTIFICATION FOR REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT OF .UG
ccTLD
Internet domain names have assumed greater significance in the recent times with
Internet increasingly being used as an effective medium for commerce, education,
governance and communication. In order to have a larger presence in the Internet
space, a forward looking policy for registration under country code Top Level Domain
(ccTLD) will help in its proliferation as all Ugandan residents, government entities,
public service organizations and businesses will be able to establish their Ugandan
identity in the Internet space with a unique domain name.
Countries and territories around the world are assigned a unique country code top-level
domain name (ccTLD). For each ccTLD, there is a designated manager. In a number of
cases, the ccTLD manager is a for-profit entity located outside of the country to which
the domain name relates. In these cases, it may be desirable to re-delegate
management of the ccTLD to a local entity, to bring the management of the ccTLD
inside the territory of the country involved and to make the administration of the
domain name more responsive to the public interest.
Since domain names in the ccTLDs have become very popular, globally, their
management is now an important policy issue. There are several benefits that accrue
equitable management of the Top Level Domain Name for a country like Uganda. Key
ones include;
Managing and operating the domain name
Promote the utilisation of the .Ug name space
Promote growth and development of ICTs across the country
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Facilitate articulation of the views relating to internet use, at both local
and international fora
It is, therefore, necessary for the Uganda Internet Community to be effectively
represented in the management of the country’s top-level domain in view of its impact
at the national and international levels.
Administration of ccTLD within the country is vital because the regulation, renewal,
suspension of domain names and the disputes that may arise under the ccTLD, will be
governed by the Uganda laws.
2.0 EXPERIENCE FROM OTHER COUNTRIES AND LESSONS FOR UGANDA
2.1 INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO
There are many different models for structuring domain administration in the various
parts of the world as summarised below:
(i) Regulatory authority
(ii) Internet Society
(iii) Government ministry or organ
(iv) Not for profit organisation (Government with private sector)
(v) Not for profit organisation (private sector only)
(vi) Commercially operating private company
(vii) Academic/research institution
(viii) Telecommunications operators
Many countries have adopted liberal and market friendly policies to register large
number of Internet domain names under their country code, broadly consistent with
global policy and procedures of domain registration. Recently, some of the countries
have brought about significant changes to their registration policies & procedures,
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which have led to a substantial increase in the number of domains registered in a short
period of time.
2.2 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA)
In the United States the government through the Department of Commerce has
delegated the technical and operational responsibilities to a private not for Profit
Company while the policy, procedures and governance functions remain with advisory
body that is made up of US internet community.
2.3 CHINA
In China, the government created a non-profit entity to manage the ccTLD, the China
Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) under the Ministry of Information and
Industry (MII). The responsibility of technical and administrative management is
entrusted to the Chinese Academy of Sciences
2.4 TANZANIA
Tanzania having examined the experience from other countries and based on their
context, proposed to establish a non-profit company limited by guarantee with no
shares and with members rather than shareholders. The proposed name for this
company is the Tanzania Network Information Centre (tzNIC) whose purpose would be
to control, manage and operate the .tz country code Top Level Domain and provide
complementary registry services in the interests of the relevant stakeholder
communities.
2.5 KENYA
KENIC was borne through a broad based consultative process of the “Local Internet
Community” with an aim of instituting a local non-profit organization to manage and
operate the .KE ccTLD.
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The responsibility of ccTLD has been re-delegated to a private non-profit company with
the regulator having a permanent membership and ability to over-rule any policy or
practice that goes against original stated responsibilities.
2.6 MAURITIUS
After a wider consultation, Mauritius noted that the management model opted for
should have a wider representation from the Internet Community. This led to formation
of the Internet Management Committee whose purpose was to formulate policy and
setting direction for new registry within the country. Like most countries, a not for profit
model was opted with the Internet Management Committee as the overseer.
These are all based on one approach. These cases could give different perspective
(Finland or Singapore, Niue, Argentina, Nigeria, Korea, Malaysia etc)
There is no one domain name management style that has been adopted by all
countries. Different countries have adopted different approaches.
3.1 LESSONS FOR UGANDA
3.2 ISSUES TO CONSIDER IN ADOPTING A MANAGEMENT STYLE
The following are the issues that Uganda should consider in adopting future
management style:
Need to involve stakeholders so as to cater for the needs and interests of
the entire local Internet community
Priority as well as the perceived value attached to Internet, or more
specifically, .Ug by government in national development plans
Funding and sustainability of the registry ( .Ug)
Oversight of the activities of the registry.
Cyber security in general and the domain names related business.
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In addressing the above issues, and moving forward to implement the model of
choice for Uganda, the following additional issues shall be taken into consideration:-
(i) The need to create and define policy, regulatory and operational roles of
managing the .Ug.
(ii) Relevant guidelines by ICANN on re-delegation of ccTLDs
(iii) Ensuring availability of financial resources and sustainability of the .Ug
(iv) The existing legal framework relating to internet use in Uganda
4.0 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE FOR UGANDA
4.1 The Current .Ug management arrangement
In Uganda, .Ug is currently administered by a privately owned company, Computer
Frontiers International. This includes the setting of the policies on .Ug as well as the
day to day technical and administrative functions of a ccTLD registrar and sponsor.
This arrangement emanates from a historical set of events in which the owners of
the Computer Frontiers, worked very hard to shift the management of the .Ug from
a volunteer manager (Mr. Randy Bush) located in United States of America. This had
come into the responsibility of Mr. Randy Bush when he had previously volunteered
to manage many countries’ domain names as at the time when the domain names
were assigned; many countries (mainly on the African continent) were not ready to
manage their own domain names. Some countries are still under this arrangement,
although many countries are working very hard to move the management of their
country’s domain name to an arrangement where the management is done from
within their country and by a body which is multi stakeholder’s interest
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4.2 The 2003 Internet study
A survey conducted by Uganda Communications Commission around the four
regions of Uganda towards Internet development in Uganda indicated that the
majority of respondents were satisfied with the current arrangements of
administration with 11 of the 30 respondents not satisfied due to the following
reasons.
i. Registration and renewal is too expensive
ii. Appears to be monopolised by a single agent
iii. Since it is a national resource, it should not be managed privately unless
under outsourcing arrangements
5.0 POLICY STATEMENT, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
5.1 POLICY STATEMENT
i. The .Ug ccTLD management policy aims at creating liberal, efficient and
market friendly processes and a distributed organizational structure to
facilitate the operation and use of .Ug in support of sustainable socioeconomic
development of the country.
ii. It will also provide guidelines to ensure a smooth re-delegation of .Ug
ccTLD.
iii. The policy provides for the creation of the Uganda National Information
Centre (ugNIC), a not-for-profit company comprising of representatives
from government, association of internet service providers, NGO/Civil
society, consumers, infrastructure providers, academia and the business
community.
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5.2 POLICY OBJECTIVE
The policy hinges on the following objectives:
i. To effectively manage and operate the domain name
ii. To Promote the utilisation of the .Ug name space
iii. To Promote growth and development of ICTs in rural and low income
areas
iv. To Facilitate articulation of the views of Uganda relating to internet use, at
both local and international fora
v. To promote access to the internet across all marginalised groups.
5.3 STRATEGIES
i. The proposed institutional framework for management of .Ug ccTLD is to
take into consideration the needs of the local and global Internet
Community
ii. The management of Internet resources are of national interest, to
promote levels of development as it is the mandate of the government
through Internet.
iii. Provide efficient and effective registry services to the Internet Community.
iv. Ensure that users are able to register, add, delete or modify domains
without delays, unclear or undefined procedures.
The responsible entity should be accountable to the users it is serving
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6.0 DIRECT GOVERNMENT INTERVETION
6.1 ROAD MAP TO ESTABLISHMENT OF UGNIC
On the basis of analysis of the possible options for re-delegation of ccTLD and
taking into account pertinent ICANN guidelines, the following roadmap shall
guide the establishment of UGNIC to assume the responsibility of administering
.ug from Computer Frontiers Limited.
i. Establish a non profit making company which should be charged with the
management of Uganda’s top level domain names ( .Ug).
ii. Establish a Board for this company which should have multi-stakeholder
representation.
iii. Establish advisory committees, on Technical and Policy matters
iv. Designate the Ministry of ICT as the Sponsor of the .Ug while the created
company will be the Technical Manager
v. Designate Uganda Communications Commission as the financier for the
start up of UGNIC
vi. Unlimited generic .Ug registration to be open to public at 2nd and 3rd level
7.0 INSTUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
7.1 MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
Ministry of ICT will be the Sponsor who will present the case for re-delegation of
.Ug ccTLD to ICANN. The Ministry will also ensure that a conducive policy, legal and
regulatory environment is in place for the smooth operation of ugNIC.
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7.2 UGANDA COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
UCC will ensure that the .UgNIC is well facilitated to carry out its obligations,
nationally and internationally. Specifically in the initial stage and when the .UgNIC
requires financial assistance, UCC will be expected to provide the requisite support.
7.3 NATIONAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AUTHORITY – UGANDA
NITA-U will facilitate ugNIC by ensuring that there is always adequate security of
the .Ug data, resources and appropriate recovery plans in place.
7.4 UGANDA NATIONAL INFORMATION CENTRE (UGNIC)
The Uganda National Information Centre (ugNIC) shall manage operations of ug. It
shall have the following key functions:
i. Carry out the day to day technical management of .Ug domain name space
in accordance with the guidelines issued by the ugNIC Board;
ii. Comply with international best practice in the administration of the .Ug
domain name space;
iii. Register Domain Name Registrars in accordance with set guidelines.
iv. Monitor the operations of registrars to ensure that they abide by the
governing regulations and guidelines
v. Provide any technical assistance to anybody using the .Ug
vi. Provide technical inputs to the Board and The Technical Advisory Committee
to enable them to do their work
7.5 TRUSTEES OF .UgNIC
The Minister responsible for ICT and the Executive Director of Uganda Communications
Commission shall be the Trustees of ugNIC, on behalf of all the stakeholders.
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7.6 COMPOSITION OF ugNIC BOARD
The ugNIC Board will be composed of representation from the following;
a) Ministry of ICT
b) Uganda Communications Commission
c) NITA-U
d) Service Providers
e) Infrastructure providers
f) Academia ( Tertiary Institutions)
g) Business Community
h) NGO/Civil society
i) Consumers
7.7 ROLES OF THE ugNIC BOARD
The ugNIC Board shall have the following roles for the overall management of .Ug:
a) Set policies which will guide the technical, administrative and operational
management of the .Ug, as well as provide oversight over the same
b) Approve the ugNIC operational plans ( budgets, strategic plan and
Business Plan)
c) Approve rules , regulation and procedures etc, regarding the use of .Ug
d) Receive and consider inputs from the Technical and Policy Advisory
Committees
e) Provide information to stakeholders on the overall management of the
.Ug.
f) To ensure appropriate representation at local, regional and international
fora and meetings concerning domain name management.
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7. 8 ugNIC Technical Advisory Committee and the ugNIC Policy Advisory
Committee
Each of the two Committees is expected to provide advice to the Board on matters that
fall under their speciality, voluntarily and when requested by the Board. There will be
instances when the Board will specifically ask for advice from the Committee and also
the Committees may find needful to volunteer advice to the Board.
Committees will be composed of the Chairman, Vice Chair and Publicity and
Mobilization Secretary, who shall be elected for a term of two years renewable only
once. The Secretarial services will be provided by the .UgNIC Management Team. The
meetings of the Advisory Committees shall be financed from the budget of the .UgNIC.
7.9 SUSTAINIBILITY PLAN
Initially, the Uganda Communication Commission will fund the start-up activities.
Thereafter, UgNIC will raise funds through domain registration fees as determined by
the UgNIC board from time to time. In Transitioning from current management,
UgNIC Board will work with the existing registry to develop a roadmap for smooth
transitioning for re-delegation.
8.0 CONCLUSION
Today, national governments recognize ccTLDs as a component of their sovereignty
and a vital national interest. Realizing that ccTLDs may denote the brand of the
country, most governments have openly embraced ccTLDs as a platform for national
socio-economic growth. As ccTLDs become increasingly important, national
governments are beginning to assert control over the administration of their ccTLDs. It
is very ideal that Uganda joins the rest of the world and takes control of it